Typical Settings for Simulating Various Pulmonary Physiologies

The following conditions are based on a “standard” adult human patient who might normally be expected to exhibit pulmonary characteristics as follows:

Dual Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.05 L/cmH2O in each lung (0.10 L/cmH2O total compliance)

Resistance: Upper airway: Rp5 Lower airway: Rp20 to each lung

Single Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.10 L/cmH2O

Resistance: Rp20


Diseases affecting the airways, like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

These conditions are characterized by increased resistance to airflow, particularly in the lower airways. Depending on the severity and duration of the disease, pulmonary compliance may be slightly depressed, and upper airway resistance may be increased if the simulated patient is assumed to be intubated.

Dual Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.04 L/cmH2O in each lung (0.08 L/cmH2O total compliance)

Resistance: Upper airway: Rp20 Lower airway: Rp50 to each lung

Single Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.08 L/cmH2O

Resistance: Rp50


Diseases affecting Lung Compliance, like Emphysema

These conditions are characterized by decreased pulmonary compliance (increased lung stiffness). Airway resistance is typically unaffected by the disease, but may be increased if the simulation supposes the patient is intubated.

Dual Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.02 L/cmH2O in each lung (0.04 L/cmH2O total compliance)

Resistance: Upper airway: Rp5 ; Lower airway: Rp20 to each lung

Single Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.02 L/cmH2O to 0.05 L/cmH2O

Resistance: Rp20
 

Acute Asthma Attack

Characterized by greatly increased airway resistance, with generally normal pulmonary compliance. Compliance will decrease, however, as the duration of the simulated attack increases.

Dual Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.05 L/cmH2O in each lung (0.10 L/cmH2O total compliance)

Resistance: Upper airway: Rp5Lower airway: Rp50 to each lung

Single Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.10 L/cmH2O

Resistance: Rp50


Collapsed Lung

Characterized by drastically reduced compliance in the affected lung(s), with normal airway resistance values. If the simulated cause of the collapse includes a blocked airway, use a higher resistance value for that portion of the airway (e.g., replace Rp20 with Rp50).

Dual Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.01 L/cmH2O in affected lung(s) (0.05 L/cmH2O in the normal lung)

Resistance: Upper airway: Rp5 Lower airway: Rp20 to each lung

Single Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.01 L/cmH2O to 0.05 L/cmH2O

Resistance: Rp20


Pneumothorax / Hemothorax

Similar to the Collapsed Lung scenario, but decrease in pulmonary compliance may not be as marked.

Dual Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.02 L/cmH2O in affected lung(s) (0.05 L/cmH2O in the normal lung)

Resistance: Upper airway: Rp5 ; Lower airway: Rp20 to each lung

Single Adult Lung Simulation

Compliance: 0.02 L/cmH2O to 0.05 L/cmH2O

Resistance: Rp20

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