At Michigan Instruments, our Test Lung Simulators are used for a number of different applications. From classroom instruction to product evaluation, pulmonary research or clinical intervention, our customers value the versatility, accuracy, and realism of our test lung simulations. But what if the simulation and testing isn’t for a human?

The Challenge:

A veterinary facility located in Ponte Verde, Florida recently reached out to the experts at Michigan Instruments with a unique request.

They were developing a ventilator designed for use on dolphins when putting them under anesthesia and needed a way to test this piece of equipment. The Test Lung Simulator had to be able to measure at a much larger pulmonary capacity than is necessary for humans – 12 liters to be exact – and there was nothing available on the market.

In short, they needed to simulate dolphins under anesthesia, and needed a device that could simulate and measure large tidal volumes to successfully test their equipment before using it on live animals. They looked to Michigan Instruments for help.

The Solution:

The team at Michigan Instruments began developing and testing a unique solution for the veterinary clinic, helping them ensure their ventilators were safe and effective for medical use.

By taking three of our dual adult test lungs and manufacturing a special airway assembly that connected all three together, we were able to provide the lung capacity that was required to simulate the dolphin pulmonary system.

We forged and built the custom airway in-house, developed in-depth operational documents and sent the test lungs directly to the veterinary clinic with everything they needed to accurately test their equipment.

The Results:

The veterinary clinic was able to successfully test their ventilators in preparation for use on large mammals such as dolphins. They were also able to train other specialists on their ventilator’s operation in advance of any anesthetic surgery.

From Michigan Instruments’ perspective, it was a lot fun to develop this custom product for such a unique application!

“It was a fun adventure,” says Eric Hadesh, Document Control Manager at Michigan Instruments, “it was definitely something we don’t do day-to-day and it was interesting to determine how best to complete and assemble the system, then come up with the pictures and documentation. It was a great learning experience for us, but also an exceptional application of our lung simulation products and capabilities.”

This is just one example of many that shows how Michigan Instruments continues to forge ahead as an innovative pioneer in the respiratory care industry. Setting the standard in quality, versatility and durability, we never shy away from a challenge and are always operating from a ‘what’s next’ mentality.

Learn more about our test lung simulators or contact us today with any questions. We love a good challenge and can’t wait to hear about how you would like to use any of our state-of-the-art products to better train your people, test your products, or perform groundbreaking medical research.

Our Training Test Lung and PneuView®3 Systems offer more training capabilities than ever before.

Recent product updates and software enhancements have further improved our Training Test Lung devices and Lung Simulation software including:

  • Realistically simulating healthy or diseased lung conditions
  • Allowing for adjustable settings for lung compliance and airway resistance
  • Can be used for multiple applications for teaching, research, and testing
  • A dedicated Software (PneuView) used to view, capture, record, and replay ventilation data (Watch a video showcasing this system’s capabilities.)
  • A durable, low-maintenance design, able to withstand student use and abuse

Train & Practice with Mechanical Ventilators

Our Training Test Lungs are mechanical devices that simulate the dynamic anatomic forces at play during ventilation. These sophisticated devices provide students with the ability to train and practice with mechanical ventilators and other respiratory care equipment before and during their clinical experience. The realistic simulations and real-time feedback help students learn how to properly manage a variety of respiratory conditions, better preparing them for real lifesaving scenarios.

Unlike more basic test lungs, Training Test Lungs and PneuView systems offer residual lung volumes and a dynamic response to therapy that more realistically represents the human pulmonary system. Our systems are available in Adult and Infant models as well.

Learn more about our Training & Test Lung Devices here, or contact us for more information.

Put Your Trust in Michigan Instruments’ Training Test Lungs


For decades, Michigan Instruments Training & Test Lungs and PneuView® Software Systems have provided realistic respiratory simulations, providing many test lung uses for equipment manufacturers.

Training & Test Lung Uses/Manufacturing Applications

  • Design, test & improve Respiratory Care products
  • Confirm the performance of products prior to delivery to customers
  • Troubleshoot performance problems, applying realistic “loads” on the products
  • Train your Engineering, Tech Support, Marketing, and Sales personnel on use of your products
  • Demonstrate products to customers and prospects.

Our Training & Test Lungs provide adjustable compliance and resistance, simulating both healthy and diseased lung conditions. They also provide realistic residual lung volumes and allow ventilation volumes of up to 4.0 liters (Dual Adult TTL). If you’re testing respiratory care masks or other patient accessories, you may be interested in our recently introduced Head Simulation Modules as well.

Our mechanical lung provides real-time feedback with on-board volume scales and pressure gauges. Multiple ports on the test lungs provide access for additional monitoring, sampling, or introduction of gas or agents during testing. Adding the PneuView electronics and software allows you to view, record, and replay the dynamic data from the test lung.

Learn more about these lung simulation products here, or contact us today to learn more.

The study referenced here and available for download (PDF) here used the Michigan Instruments Dual Adult TTL to test several emergency and transport ventilators over their range of operation.

The TTL was able to simulate various respiratory conditions with decreased or increased compliance and resistance. The TTL was also used to simulate spontaneous breathing patients, using one lung as the “driver” and one as the spontaneous breather. This allowed the investigators to evaluate the responsiveness of the ventilators to patient effort. In Summary: applying realistic loads and forces on these ventilators revealed important differences, including significant weaknesses in the performance of some models.

Originally published in RESPIRATORY CARE • NOVEMBER 2013 VOL 58 NO 11

Evaluation of Ventilators Used During Transport of Critically Ill Patients: A Bench Study

by Salah Boussen PhD MD, Marc Gainnier PhD MD, and Pierre Michelet PhD MD

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most recent transport ventilators’ operational performance regarding volume delivery in controlled mode, trigger function, and the quality of pressurization in pressure support mode.

METHODS: Eight recent transport ventilators were included in a bench study in order to evaluate their accuracy to deliver a set tidal volume under normal resistance and compliance conditions, ARDS conditions, and obstructive conditions. The performance of the triggering system was assessed by the measure of the decrease in pressure and the time delay required to open the inspiratory valve. The quality of pressurization was obtained by computing the integral of the pressure-time curve for the first 300 ms and 500 ms after the onset of inspiration.

RESULTS: For the targeted tidal volumes of 300, 500, and 800 mL the errors ranged from –3% to 48%, –7% to 18%, and –5% to 25% in the normal conditions, – 4% to 27%, –2% to 35%, and –3% to 35% in the ARDS conditions, and 4% to 53%, 6% to 30%, and 30% to 28% in the obstructive conditions. In pressure support mode the pressure drop range was 0.4 –1.7 cm H2O, the trigger delay range was 68 –198 ms, and the pressurization performance (percent of ideal pressurization, as measured by pressure-time product at 300 ms and 500 ms) ranges were –9% to 44% at 300 ms and 6%– 66% at 500 ms (P < .01).

CONCLUSIONS: There were important differences in the performance of the tested ventilators. The most recent turbine ventilators outperformed the pneumatic ventilators. The best performers among the turbine ventilators proved comparable to modern ICU ventilators. Key words: mechanical ventilation; transport ventilator; bench study; ICU patient transport; pressure support ventilation; inspiratory trigger; ventilator performances.

[Respir Care 2013;58(11): 1911–1922. © 2013 Daedalus Enterprises]

Download the full study here:

For years, Michigan Instruments Training & Test Lung Simulators have been used by ventilator manufacturers and respiratory therapists to validate, calibrate and train staff on ventilator equipment. We have recently introduced our Head Simulation Modules to offer additional training and testing options for respiratory care products.


The Test Lung Simulators are fully adjustable and mimic the human pulmonary system, providing real time feedback. They effectively simulate patient activity and response to the treatment being used, making them ideal simulators to use for product testing, validation and professional training.

The Head Simulation Modules provide a wider range of applications where visible and immediate response to the patient impact can be seen.

Utilizing lung simulators with the head simulation modules (HSM), hospital staff can be trained on more equipment and patient care scenarios than ever before. Ensuring staff is trained and capable of the patient procedures is critical, even for scenarios that may not occur often. Users can monitor and see lung volume, lung pressure, airway pressure on the test lung itself. Our PneuView® software also provides additional data, which can be recorded*, saved, and reviewed for additional training

Head Simulation Module Testing & Training Applications

  • CPAP and BiPAP Systems
  • Effective use of Manual Resuscitators
  • Non-Invasive ventilators and Ventilation Modes
  • Oxygen Delivery Systems

Allows assessment and training for:

  • Actual volume delivery during manual resuscitation
  • Effects of varying lung compliance and airway resistance on BVM performance
  • Incidence of Gas-trapping or AutoPEEP seen during manual resuscitation
  • Actual FiO2 delivery to the lungs during manual resuscitation (requires PneuView with oxygen sensor or independent oxygen analyzer)

Learn more about our Head Simulation Modules here. If you would like additional technical information or pricing, please contact us today.

*Available in PneuView3.1 Software only

This information is intended to provide some guidance and suggestions for use of the Test Lung Simulators. It does not encompass the full range of applications for which the TTL and PneuView Systems are appropriate. We welcome your suggestions for future Application & Use Case scenarios, and encourage you to share your own experiences and applications with us via email at

Pulmonary Test Lung Simulation

Michigan Instruments Test Lungs can be of great assistance in the classroom. The adjustable lung compliance and airway resistance allows the instructor or student to demonstrate or investigate a wide variety of ventilation phenomena.

The relationships between pressure, volume, and flow are more easily understood when displayed using the TTL and PneuView 3 Software. There are few things more valuable in an academic environment than both hands on and visual experience.

The TTL offers a look into the inner workings of the human pulmonary system that students would not otherwise have, and does it in a safe, non-clinical situation.

Test Lung Simulation, Classroom Setting:

Worsening Pneumonia in the Right Lung


  1. Set up the Dual Adult TTL or PneuView for ventilation of both lungs.
  2. Set each lung compliance to 0.05 L/cm H2O.
  3. Set upper airway resistance to Rp5.
  4. Set lower airway resistance to Rp20
  5. Using a ventilator or resuscitation bag, ventilate the TTL at a rate of 12 bpm and tidal volume of approximately 0.800 L.
  6. Note the tidal volume delivered to each lung.
  7. Change the compliance of the right lung to 0.03, then 0.02, and finally 0.01, and note the differing lung volumes with each change.

Learn more about the capabilities of our newest Lung Simulators today!

PneuView3 Improvements from Michigan Instruments are worth mentioning!

Did you know that Michigan Instruments’ NEW Training and Test Lung embodies a mechanical respiratory simulation of the human pulmonary system that can measure airway pressure, lung pressure, tidal volume, and many other parameters?

Originally developed 40 years ago, the “Michigan Instruments TTL” was developed to simulate the human pulmonary system. The PneuView3 software was completely redeveloped with insight from our customers, biomechanical engineers, respiratory therapists and educators at area universities. With the New PneuView3 Software, the redesigned training and test lung, which is fully to scale, gives users the ability to simulate hundreds of patient scenarios.

The system includes a mechanical test lung (or lungs) simulator that’s precisely engineered with a set of electronic sensors, a signal conditioning package, and an integrated micro control unit.

The PneuView3 software application calculates respiratory parameters and waveforms, displaying them in real time. It also allows you to export data for later review.

A range of models are available, including:

  • Dual adult
  • Single adult
  • Adult-Infant

All are available as instrumented or non-instrumented models.

An Improved User Experience

Take a look at the different interfaces of the old and new software. You’ll find a much easier way to set up a project, patient parameters, and see the output in real time. This allows your Training & Test Lung to be used for staff training, ventilator calibrations, and more.


What makes the new “Michigan Lung” and the PneuView3 Software Different?

Most training and test lungs perform just a handful of simulations and are not fully to scale, which means that their parameters are adjusted according to a scale model. This gives the Michigan Lung the advantage of moving and “feeling” like a real lung when it’s ventilated.

The re-designed Michigan Lung and PneuView3 Software provide a comprehensive lung simulation that can be used in the improvement of respiratory products, calibration of ventilators and in research to enhance patient care and treatment.


While the previous version was great for those with extensive training, the PneuView3 Software is streamlined and intuitive, allowing for easier setup, learning, and operation.

  • The new Michigan Lung and PneuView3 Software provide comprehensive data by displaying dozens of parameters like pressures, flows, and volumes.
  • High-Frequency Ventilation is available for human lung simulations of all types.
  • The new lungs feature an increased resolution of output data.
  • Built-in temperature and FIO2 (Fraction of Inspired Oxygen) calculations are included.
  • The software is compatible with all modern Windows®-based operating systems.

Learn more about the Michigan Lung Test & Training Lungs.

Do you have questions about the new “Michigan Lung”, the PneuView3 Software or would like a quote? Contact us at or 616.554.9696.